Differentially private stochastic gradient descent (DP-SGD) is the workhorse
algorithm for recent advances in private deep learning. It provides a single
privacy guarantee to all datapoints in the dataset. We propose an efficient
algorithm to compute per-instance privacy guarantees for individual examples
when running DP-SGD. We use our algorithm to investigate per-instance privacy
losses across a number of datasets. We find that most examples enjoy stronger
privacy guarantees than the worst-case bounds. We further discover that the
loss and the privacy loss on an example are well-correlated. This implies
groups that are underserved in terms of model utility are simultaneously
underserved in terms of privacy loss. For example, on CIFAR-10, the average
$epsilon$ of the class with the highest loss (Cat) is 32% higher than that of
the class with the lowest loss (Ship). We also run membership inference attacks
to show this reflects disparate empirical privacy risks.

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